- Urothelial cell bladder cancer – Cancer that begins in the cells which line the urethra, bladder, ureters, renal pelvis, and some other organs. Almost all bladder cancers are urothelial carcinomas.
- Squamous cell bladder cancer – Develops from the flat cells that make up the moist, skin-like tissues that line your body organs.
- Adenocarcinoma – Type of cancer that starts in mucus-producing (glandular) cells. Many organs have these types of cells and adenocarcinoma can develop in any of these organs.
- Sarcoma – A rare type of malignant (cancerous) tumor that develops in bone and connective tissue, such as fat, muscle, blood vessels.
Small cell bladder cancer – A very rare form that accounts for less than 1% of all bladder cancers.
Blood disorders treated by Gadsden Cancer Clinic include anemias, bone marrow failure, enzyme deficiencies, hemophilia, problems with excessive bleeding or clotting, iron metabolism disorders, white blood cell disorders, and sickle cell disease. With years of experience studying hematology and treating blood cancers, Dr. Castillo and his team provide patients from across Northeast Alabama with the highest level of blood disorder treatment.
Treatment protocols for breast and other cancers continue to change as more exciting scientific research offers ever growing hope for cancer patients. The list of accepted treatments for breast cancer includes surgery, chemotherapy, hormonal therapy, biological therapy, and radiation therapy. Dr. Castillo and our team of Gadsden Cancer Clinic providers will work with you to determine the treatment plan that will best help you return to a healthy and happy life.
Colorectal cancer develops from noncancerous polyps (growths) in the inner lining of the large intestine or rectum. An annual or biennial colonoscopy, along with blood tests for altered DNA, are excellent ways to have the polyps found and eliminated before becoming cancer. Treatment for colon cancer includes surgery. The Gadsden Cancer Clinic provider team will determine whether each patient should undergo chemotherapy or targeted therapy before or after surgery, depending on the staging of the cancer.
Treatments for esophageal cancer can include a diverse number of interventions including surgery, radiation therapy as an adjuvant therapy before or after surgery, chemotherapy, endoscopic submucosal dissection (used as treatment for early-stage esophageal cancer), and endoscopic mucosal resection (surgeons use this procedure to remove tumors in the mucous lining of the esophagus or endoscopic laser therapy to relieve difficulty in swallowing). Photodynamic therapy, which creates a chemical reaction that kills cancer cells, is also an option. Targeted therapy targets certain proteins involved in esophageal cancer. Immunotherapy supports your immune system’s response to the cancer cells. You can trust our multidisciplinary specialists to work together to create a plan specific to your disease to ensure the most positive outcomes and quality of life.
The five main types of gynecologic cancer are: cervical, ovarian, uterine, vaginal, and vulvar. (A sixth type of gynecologic cancer is the very rare fallopian tube cancer.)
With his comprehensive experience and training, as well as his consultation with renowned researchers and clinicians, Dr. Castillo can administer the most promising regimen for your treatment.
Hodgkin’s Lymphoma is a type of cancer that affects the lymphatic system, which is part of the body’s germ-fighting immune system. In Hodgkin’s lymphoma, white blood cells called lymphocytes grow out of control, causing swollen lymph nodes and growths throughout the body. Treatment is generally chemotherapy alone, or chemotherapy followed by radiotherapy.
To determine the best protocol for a kidney cancer patient’s treatment, the surgeon removing the tumor will send the tissue to the pathology department. There it will be discovered which of the variety of kidney cancers the patient has. Based on the results the Gadsden Cancer Clinic team, lead by Dr. Castillo, will establish a treatment regimen.
The following information is limited to leukemia for adults. For childhood leukemia, we encourage parents and caregivers to discuss the diseases with Dr. Castillo.
There are four types of leukemia:
- Acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL) – A cancer that causes bone marrow to overproduce special white blood cells called lymphoblasts. When the body produces too many lymphoblasts and releases the immature blood cells into the blood stream, they are unable to fight infections in the body as they should. In adults, treatment is long-term chemotherapy, sometimes accompanied by targeted therapy.
- Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) – In this cancer, the bone makes a large number of abnormal blood cells possibly affecting red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets. These blood cells do not function as they should. Treatment involves chemotherapy sometimes accompanied by targeted therapy. The goal is to kill the leukemia cells in the blood and bone marrow allowing the leukemia to go into remission. Post remission therapy is the second phase of treatment.
- Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) – A type of blood cancer that affects white blood cells called lymphocytes. In this chronic condition, which develops slowly over many years, the body makes abnormal lymphocytes that don’t work properly and grow too fast. Treatment should be discussed with Dr. Castillo as it depends on the progress of the disease.
- Chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) – A type of blood cancer that is broken up into several different phases, based on the white blood cell numbers in the blood and bone marrow. These phases are chronic, accelerated, and blast phases. The treatment options available will depend on the phase, as well as several other factors.
There are two types of primary cancers which originate in the liver. One arises from the tissue of the liver itself, hepatocellular carcinoma, and one that arises from the bile ducts, cholangiocarcinoma.
The liver is also often a site of secondary cancer. Secondary cancers are those that have metastasized from other tissues in the body. Determining the treatment regimen includes a meticulous determination of the stage of the cancer. To determine the stage, Dr. Castillo will evaluate the liver function, the patient’s overall health, the severity of the symptoms, and whether the cancer has spread. Each patient’s findings are different but vital to the determination of the type and schedule of the treatment protocol. These evaluations require great proficiency on the part of the physician.
Protocols for the treatment of cancers of the lung may include surgery to excise the cancer, chemotherapy, radiation therapy and targeted therapy. While a lung cancer diagnosis can be scary, patients can rest assured that Dr. Castillo and the Gadsden Cancer Clinic team are abreast of the latest advancements in the science of oncology. With the help of a dedicated treatment team, lung patients will receive exceptional care.
Melanoma is a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in melanocytes (cells that color the skin). There are different types of cancer that start in the skin and melanoma can occur anywhere on the skin. Treatment is determined based on the stage of the melanoma at diagnosis and the patient’s overall health.
Non-Hodgkin’s Lymphoma refers to cancers that develop in the lymphatic system. The lymphatic system collects fluid that has drained from the blood vessels into the tissues and carries it to a major blood vessel in the chest where the fluid is returned to the bloodstream. As it flows, it filters out harmful cells and fluids like bacteria, cell products, and cancer cells into the lymph nodes containing white blood cells. Interventions may include one or more of these options: chemotherapy, immunotherapy, targeted drug therapy, biotherapy, radiation therapy, surgery, and/or high dose chemotherapy with stem cell transplant.
This gland, unique to men, is situated adjacent to the urethra inside the body just beneath the urinary bladder. Its function is to help propel the sperm while secreting seminal fluids that protect and nourish the sperm. Dr. Castillo is highly qualified to treat both prostate cancer confined to the gland itself and metastatic cancer of the prostate.
A sarcoma is a cancerous tumor that develops in bone and connective tissue, such as fat, muscle, blood vessels, nerves and the tissue that surrounds bones and joints. Symptoms depend on the tumor’s size and location. Treatments include surgery, radiation, chemotherapy, targeted therapy, and immunotherapy.
Arises from the thyroid gland situated on the anterior surface of the trachea. Thyroid cancer can cause abnormally higher levels of hormone. Treatment of thyroid cancer may include surgery, radioactive iodine therapy, hormone therapy, and external radiation therapy. Patients are encouraged to ask questions of their Gadsden Cancer Clinic providers, and they can expect compassionate and clear explanations in return.